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Wales/Cymru: ° Aberdyfi ° Aberystwyth ° Bangor (Gwynedd) ° Borth (Ceredigion) ° Cardiff, Pontypridd, Swansea (Glamorgan) ° Holyhead (Anglesey) ° Fishguard, Milford Haven, Pembroke (Pembrokshire) ° Porthmadog (Eifionydd) ° The Welsh Language ° The Mandans and Owain of Wales

Aberystwyth, Ceredigion

Like many other towns in Wales, Aberystwyth is a product of Edward's mania for castle-building.

The construction of Aberystwyth castle was begun in 1277, after Edward's defeat of Llywelyn ap Gruffydd, and completed in 1289.

In 1404, the castle fell to Owain Glyndwr and it was occupied until being recaptured by cannon in 1408. During this occupation it became an important seat of Welsh government.

In 1637, the castle was chosen by Charles I to house a royal mint. Coins of eight different denominations were produced from local silver. All carried the emblem of the Prince of Wales feathers.

Charles Bushell, who operated the mint in 1637, became very wealthy. At the start of the Civil War he lent Charles I 40,000 and raised a regiment of soldiers made up from local miners. Bushell's mint was closed down during the Civil War, but was used to store silver and lead.

Marine Terrace, Aberystwyth, 1844
(Engraving and Aquatint)

Garrisoned by Royalists, the castle was besieged by the Parliamentarians and surrendered in 1646. Cromwell's troops made a good job of demolishing the building, thus preventing it ever being used again. But perhaps it also reflected the symbolic importance of the castle as a royal mint.

By the beginning of the 19th century, the town s walls and gates had completely disappeared.

Aberystwyth's history includes shipbuilding; however, the last ship to be built in Aberystwyth was completed in 1881.

The Town developed a fishing industry, and silver and lead mining were also important here. With the arrival of the railway in 1864, it reinvented itself as a resort appealing to genteel Victorian sensibilities. In 1872 Aberystwyth was chosen as the site of the first college of the University of Wales, and in 1907 it became home to the National Library of Wales.

Aberystwyth. Aberystwyth: History and CelebrationAberystwyth. Aberystwyth.

Michael Freeman
Aberystwyth started life as a garrison town for the Normans in 1277. For centuries fishing, sea faring, lead mining and agriculture were the mainstays of the local economy.

Today's vitality originates from a few tumultuous years during the 1860s which changed Aberystwyth from being a remote market town, port and watering-hole for the wealthier classes to a bustling holiday resort with a new university.

Aberystwyth Through TimeAberystwyth.
William Troughton Aberystwyth.Aberystwyth.
With a mile of promenade, beaches, a harbour, ruined castle, medieval street plan, University, National Library of Wales, narrow gauge and funicular railways Aberystwyth is a town of great character and charm. Using images of Aberystwyth dating from a hundred and fifty years ago until the present day the reader is taken on a tour of the town taking in the promenade, outlying districts and the town centre.

Here Be DragonsWelsh Princes Trilogy.

(Welsh Princes Trilogy)
Sharon Kay Penman
The author is an American of Irish-English-Welsh heritage who deeply understands and depicts thirteenth-century Wales.

Wales.Welsh Princes Trilogy.

It was a divided country, ever at the mercy of England’s ruthless, power-hungry King John. Llewelyn, Prince of North Wales, secured an uneasy truce by marrying the English king’s beloved illegitimate daughter.

The turbulent clashes of two disparate worlds and the destinies of the individuals caught between them spring to life in this magnificent novel of power and passion, loyalty and lies. The book that began the trilogy that includes  Falls the Shadow and The Reckoning, Here Be Dragons brings thirteenth-century England, France, and Wales to their tangled, tempestuous life with fidelity to historical detal, a deep understanding of the Middle Ages, fine prose, and insight into fascinating historical figures.

1899. World's Fleet. Boston Daily Globe

Lloyds Register of Shipping gives the entire fleet of the world as 28,180 steamers and sailing vessels, with a total tonnage of 27,673,628, of which 39 perent are British.

Great Britain10,990 vessels, total tonnage of 10,792,714
United States 3,010 vessels, total tonnage of 2,405,887
Norway 2,528 vessels, tonnage of 1,604,230
Germany 1,676 vessels, with a tonnage of 2,453,334, in which are included her particularly large ships.
Sweden 1,408 vessels with a tonnage of 643, 527
Italy1,150 vessels
France 1,182 vessels

For Historical Comparison
Top 10 Maritime Nations Ranked by Value (2017)

  Country # of Vessels







1 Greece 4,453 206.47 $88.0
2 Japan 4,317 150.26 $79.8
3 China 4,938 159.71 $71.7
4 USA 2,399 55.92 $46.5
5 Singapore 2,662 64.03 $41.7
6 Norway 1,668 39.68 $41.1
7 Germany 2,923 81.17 $30.3
8 UK 883 28.78 $24.3
9 Denmark 1,040 36.17 $23.4
10 South Korea 1,484 49.88 $20.1
Total 26,767 87.21 $466.9

The Project

Maritime Nations, Ships, Sea Captains, Merchants, Merchandise, Ship Passengers and VIPs sailing into San Francisco during the 1800s.



Merchant Shipping

Merchant Shipping.Merchant Shipping and Ancient Commerce.  
History of Merchant Shipping and Ancient CommerceMerchant Shipping and Ancient Commerce.
W. S. Lindsay

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Sources: As noted on entries and through research centers including National Archives, San Bruno, California; CDNC: California Digital Newspaper Collection; San Francisco Main Library History Collection; and Maritime Museums and Collections in Australia, China, Denmark, England, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Wales, Norway, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, etc.

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