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The Danube River is the second largest river in Europe after the Volga River. The Danube flows 1,780 mi (2,860 km) while the Danube River Basin covers an approximate total area of 310,800 miles (805,000 km). The river rises in the Black Forest Mountains of Germany and flows eastward into the Black Sea.

The Danube River is an important international waterway, flowing through or forming a part of the borders of ten countries and through major cities such as Vienna, Bratislava, Budapest, and Belgrade. The river is navigable from the Black Sea to Ulm, Germany, and serves as an important transportation corridor by linking the Black Sea to Western Europe and to the port of Rotterdam via the Rhine-Main-Danube Canal. The Danube Delta plain, located in Romania and the Ukraine, predominately consists of marshes and freshwater lakes. The Danube Delta contains the largest continuous marshland in Europe and forms one of the continent s most valuable habitats for waterfowl nesting. The Danube Delta is still spreading seaward at a rate of 78 to 98 ft (24 to 30 m) annually.

September 18, 1892, San Francisco Call , San Francisco, California, U.S.A.

Opening the Iron Gate.

View of Vienna Suburb.

The Danube River, which is the means of water communication for Vienna with the Red Sea, is not navigable by large, ships owing to shoals and rapid currents, but the Austrian Government is endeavoring to remove the obstacles, the chief of these being what is known as the Iron Gate, a rocky gorge between Roumania and Servia on the Hungarian boundary. The engineering work now being conducted for this purpose contemplates a channel some 6800 feet long, the sides of the channel to be formed by two walls of masonry, the river bed between these walls to be blasted out, the amount of rock necessary to be thus removed being about 322,000 cubic yards and in order to secure the necessary depth to the water the upper end of the walls has to be flared out to form a funnel-shaped channel.

March 8, 1894, Sacramento Daily Union , Sacramento, California, U.S.A.

A Projected Canal.

Franz Josefs Quai, Vienna, 1875

Franz Josef's Quai.

A canal connecting the Elbe and Danube has been projected. It would start near Vienna, near Kornnenburg, extend 103 miles northwestward toward Budweis, and from the latter point the channels of the Moldau and Elbe would be "canalized" for 189-1/2. The greatest difference in level along the route is 1,312 feet. It is estimated that 80,000,000 florins ($32,000,000) would cover the cost.

May 10, 1895, San Francisco Call, San Francisco, California, U.S.A.

This Scion of a Noble Family Comes En Route Around the World.
The Nephew of the Empress of Russia on Cable-Cars and In Chinatown.

Prince Franz Josef of Battenberg came on the Mariposa yesterday from the Hawaiian Islands on his trip around the world, accompanied only by Colonel Townshend of the British army and a valet. The Prince put up at the Occidental Hotel and in the afternoon took a democratic ride on the cable-cars and in the evening paid a visit to Chinatown. He is a courteous, affable young man of very pleasant and unassuming manners. He is rather good-looking, wears a full dark brown beard, and is nearly 6 feet tall.

Prince Franz Josef is the youngest of the five children of Prince Alexander of Hesse, a brother of the Empress of Russia, who contracted a morganatic marriage with a daughter of Count Hauke, who was given the title of Princess Julia von Battenberg, the children taking her title.

These were Princess Marie and Princes Ludwig, Alexander, Heinrich and Franz Josef. Princess Marie married Count Gustaf yon Erbach Schonberg. Prince Ludwig, who is a commander in the British navy, married Princess Victoria of Hesse, a granddaughter of Queen Victoria. Prince Henry is the son-in-law of the Queen, having married in 1885 Princess Beatrice, the youngest of the English ruler's children. Prince Alexander was elected Prince of Bulgaria in 1879 and ruled over that principality until 1886, when he resigned, after which he assumed the title of Count Hartenan and became a general in the Austrian army. He died in 1893.

Prince Franz Josef was born October 24, 1861, is a doctor of philosophy, is unmarried and has written a book on the agricultural development of Bulgaria from 1879 to 1891. He will remain in this City but a few days and will probably take in Yosemite Valley and Yellowstone Park on his way East and home.

Funeral of Ludwig Van Beethoven in Vienna.
March 29, 1827.

Funeral of Beethoven.

Salomon Sulzer

Austrian cantor and composer born at Hohenems, Tyrol, March 30, 1804; died at Vienna Jan. 17, 1890. Sulzer was train in cantorial singing, studying in Austria and Switzerland and traveling in France. In he was appointed cantor at Hohenems, where he modernized the ritual, and introduced a choir. At the instance of Rabbi Mannheimer of Vienna he was called to the Austrian capital as chief cantor in 1826. There he reorganized the song service of the synagogue, retaining the traditional chants and melodies, but harmonizing them in accordance with modern views.

Sulzer's "Shir Zion" (2 vols., Vienna, 1840-66) established models for the various sections of the musical service the recitative of the cantor, the choral of the choir, and the responses of the congregation and it contained music for Sabbaths, festivals, weddings, and funerals which has been introduced into nearly all the synagogues of the world. Ships, Shipping, Migration, World Seaports. In the compilation of this work he was assisted by some of the best musical composers of Vienna. Sulzer published also a small volume of songs for the Sabbath-school, entitled "Duda'im;" and a number of separate compositions, both secular and sacred. His responses are tuneful, and though more melodious than the choral chant of the Catholic Church, show a strong resemblance to it. In all his compositions strict attention is paid to the Hebrew text; and a scrupulous adherence to syntactic construction is observed throughout. The collection "Zwanzig Gesonge for den Israelitischen Gottesdienst" (Vienna, 1892) was printed posthumously. Universally recognized as the regenerator of synagogal music, he has been called the "father of the modern cantorate."

1899. World's Fleet. Boston Daily Globe

Lloyds Register of Shipping gives the entire fleet of the world as 28,180 steamers and sailing vessels, with a total tonnage of 27,673,628, of which 39 perent are British.

Great Britain10,990 vessels, total tonnage of 10,792,714
United States 3,010 vessels, total tonnage of 2,405,887
Norway 2,528 vessels, tonnage of 1,604,230
Germany 1,676 vessels, with a tonnage of 2,453,334, in which are included her particularly large ships.
Sweden 1,408 vessels with a tonnage of 643, 527
Italy1,150 vessels
France 1,182 vessels

For Historical Comparison
Top 10 Maritime Nations Ranked by Value (2017)

  Country # of Vessels







1 Greece 4,453 206.47 $88.0
2 Japan 4,317 150.26 $79.8
3 China 4,938 159.71 $71.7
4 USA 2,399 55.92 $46.5
5 Singapore 2,662 64.03 $41.7
6 Norway 1,668 39.68 $41.1
7 Germany 2,923 81.17 $30.3
8 UK 883 28.78 $24.3
9 Denmark 1,040 36.17 $23.4
10 South Korea 1,484 49.88 $20.1
Total 26,767 87.21 $466.9

The Project

Maritime Nations, Ships, Sea Captains, Merchants, Merchandise, Ship Passengers and VIPs sailing into San Francisco during the 1800s.



Merchant Shipping

Merchant Shipping.Merchant Shipping and Ancient Commerce.  
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W. S. Lindsay

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Sources: As noted on entries and through research centers including National Archives, San Bruno, California; CDNC: California Digital Newspaper Collection; San Francisco Main Library History Collection; and Maritime Museums and Collections in Australia, China, Denmark, England, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Wales, Norway, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, etc.

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