Seaports of the World
Sealing and Whaling
Most of the Eskimo peoples from the Aleutian Islands eastward to Greenland relied on the kayak for hunting a variety of prey — primarily seals, though whales and caribou were important in some areas. Skin on frame kayaks are still being used for hunting by Inuit people in Greenland. In other parts of the world home builders are continuing the tradition of skin on frame kayaks, usually with modern skins of canvas or synthetic fabric.
Kayaks were originally developed by indigenous Inuit people, who used the boats to hunt on inland lakes, rivers and coastal waters of the Arctic Ocean, North Atlantic, Bering Sea and North Pacific oceans. These first kayaks were constructed from stitched seal or other animal skins stretched over a wood or whale bone skeleton (frame). Inuit closer to the west used trees whereas the eastern Inuit used whale bone due to the treeless landscape. Kayaks are at least 4,000 years old and today's designs as shown in the Kitsilano Touring Kayak. haven't changed much except for high-end, light-weight composite materials.
Contemporary kayaks trace their origins primarily to the native boats of Alaska, northern Canada, and Southwest Greenland.
July 23, 1897, Church Weekly
London, Middlesex, United Kingdom
EXPEDITIONS to Alaska have been made by a combined hunting and gold seeking party, under Mr. Kemble, of New York, to penetrate the Copper River Country back of Cook Inlet. Once a year the Copper River Indians come down to Cook Inlet in their skin canoes to trade with the white men of the small settlements scattered along the shores. Then they return—no man knows how. Those who have attempted to follow them have invariably come back discouraged; some have never returned. The trails they follow have so far remained a secret, which they keep close locked in their breasts. Almost always the savages bring virgin gold, sometimes in good sized nuggets, sometimes in dust, which, on account of its purity and peculiar colour, has gained a distinctive character and set the white miners nearly crazy with desire. The Copper River Country is believed to be the great game centre of Alaska: Moose, caribou, bears, goats, wolves, foxes, minks, &c, are found there in large numbers. Virgin copper in nuggets the size of a man's two fists have been exhibited on Cook Inlet, and pelts of the finest and rarest character occasionally find their way to the trading posts, coining from this unknown but wonderfully resourceful country. This much was learned from Captain Hunting, the guide who goes with the party. This man has achieved a reputation as a hunter and prospector in South eastern Alaska, and has also ascended the Shushitna River, going forty miles further than any other white man. He has camped with and studied the ways of the Copper River Indians, and feels confident of making his way into their country this winter. The Indians on the inlet live on fish nearly all the year round. Salmon is so plentiful that they knock them out of the water with clubs. There's a small fish called the candle-fish, which they dry and use for lighting purposes in the winter. So full of oil are they that they burn entirely up.
Talking of Indians reminds me of a good story told by Capt. Huts: My Indian boy, who is exceptionally intelligent, was with me when I received a package of papers from a vessel just in. Among them was a copy of the New York Herald, containing an illustrated supplement. After I had looked this over tossed it to him, and I never saw a more interested Indian in my life. He squatted down on the beach, under the broiling sun, with the gnats swarming round his uncovered head, and sat there the live-long day studying those pictures, the like of which he had never seen before. I called to him several times, but he paid not the slightest heed. Once in a while his hand would go up to his head, and mechanically and soberly he would brush the flies away. But they never caused his attention to wander from the paper. Nothing did -- he was in a trance. Finally he got up, looked about him slowly, heaved a deep sigh, and with a wealth of feeling that simply beggars description, exclaimed: "Huh! White man, he know everything. Indian, he all same fool!"
The London Evening Post, November 16, 1776
London, Middlesex, United Kingdom
(Editor's Note: The following article from the London Evening Post uses the type "f" in place of "s." For the sake of accuracy, they have been left in place.)
Extract of a letter from Petersburg, October 25. "We learn from Ochotzk, by letters dated July 18, the following particulars: That the ship St. Paul, belonging to a company of Ruffian merchants, had entered the above Port, which was arrived from the islands of Amnak, Umnak, and Unalaschka, situated in the Northern Archipelago, discovered by some mariners of this nation: That the said ship left those islands the first of June, having on board a merchant, named Solowjew, for an Interpreter. The cargo of the ship consisted of the tributes levied for the Crown, and merchandize, such as beaver skins, and skins of black and red foxes, which are valued, according to the prices fixed here, at above one hundred and fifteen thousand rubles.
"There are also arrived from the said islands some of the natives, viz. five men and two women, one of which, from appearance, should be of distinguished birth. Her face is marked with strange figures, imprinted on the skin by the punctures of a sharp needle. She has a ring pendant at her nose, and from her lower lip are suspended little bones of the Narwal, shaped like teeth. The face of the other female is marked in like manner, with a ring in her nose. The only motive that engaged the above persons to undertake so perilous a voyage, was to have the satisfaction of feeing her Imperial Majesty, our most gracious Sovereign."
Boundary issues erupted in the 1820s because the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) and the Russian-American Company (RAC) were arguing over trading territories. The key document is an agreement between Russia and Great Britain that divided the Northwest American territories of the two powers, signed on February 28, 1825. As well as substantially reducing the territory that Russia had claimed, it re-opened the Russian colonies to British trading ships for a period of ten years. The HBC had asked for trade and navigation to be opened forever, but British negotiator Sir Henry Bagot told the Governors that no self-respecting government would ever accept such wording. A similar ten-year agreement on trade was made with the United States at approximately the same time, formalizing the activities of independent American trading ships who had been working in the waters of Russian America for decades.
In the wilderness of Northwest America, setting a boundary on paper was the easy part - marking its location on the ground got very complicated.
New Times, April 9, 1822
London, Middlesex, United Kingdom
HAMBURGH, MARCH 29.—"Accounts from St. Petersburg of the 15th March, say, that the American Company has received information of the breaking out of a dreadful volcano, which opened at the beginning of March last year, in the Island of Unmak, one of the Aleutian Islands, and on its first eruption, which was very violent, covered Oonilashka, and even some more distant islands, with sand, soot, and ashes."
Due to the difficulties (and the cost), sections of the border were surveyed as economic considerations dictated, and no major surveys were done until after the United States purchased Alaska in 1867.
March 21, 1868
The Anglo American Times,
London, Middlesex, United Kingdom
The purchase of Alaska has been too recently completed, and the territory has hitherto been too little known, to enable the Californians as yet to form any clear notion of its value. Immediately on the treaty being announced, a scientific expedition was dispatched, but this was not early enough in the summer, nor on a scale sufficiently comprehensive to collect the information desired. Still much has been accomplished, and a general knowledge of at least the appearance of the country obtained. The coast line is intricate, the ranges high, bold, and irregular; in many instances rising to grandeur. When the vicinity of Sitka island was reached, the expedition was surrounded by rugged snow-capped mountains. Through the clear atmosphere the huge ranges could be seen at vast distances; some of them throwing up volcanic cones, such as Edgecomb, which marks the entrance to Sitka Bay, and Mounts Fairweather and St. Elias, the latter sometimes visible to those 150 miles away. A second series of volcanic hills commences at the head of the peninsula of Alaska, extending southward, and forming the peninsula, then curving to the west and rising in the long chain of Aleutian islands, which stretch like stepping-stones to the Kamtskatka coast, trending north-east and south-west instead of northwest and south-east as on the coast of the mainland. Unirnak Island is said to present the most remarkable view of volcanic cones and peaks to be found in the known world. Shihaldiu and Pogronmaja rise in graceful and unbroken symmetry from the sea to a height of 10,000 feet, with a low volcano irregular in outline between, called Destruction Peak. It is thus named as it is a volcano in an early stage of development, which in 1863 caused the loss of many lives by an eruption. On the island of Ounalaska Mr. Blake landed with some officers of the expedition, and made the ascent of Makuskin, an active volcano on the northern end. Its height he gives approximately at 5,600 feet; the snow line, 3,168 feet; at 2,500 feet vegetation ceased, except the "red snow," which commenced a thousand feet below the summit. The hills were covered with a thick growth of grass, but the island, wholly composed of volcanic rocks, was destitute of trees. Mr. Blake says, "The published and glaringly inaccurate rate charts of the north-west coast, north of Vancouver Island, fail to give an adequate idea of the vast archipelago of islands and network of channels with which the whole coast of British Columbia and that of the lower and eastern part of Alaska, below 59 degrees, are fringed. The Straits of Fuca are the southern point of this complex system of labyrinthine channels, which afford peculiar facilities for inland navigation." Amid the rugged mass is the island of Sitka covered with its beautiful spruce, remarkable for the grace and the mathematical regularity with which its branches grow from the central stem. The roughness of the island in common with those in its vicinity and the coast line makes it peculiarly difficult to investigate the geology. A heavy growth of timber covers the steep hill-sides intertwined and obstructed by masses of fallen and decaying trees overspread with thick moss and always saturated with water. Though the distance across the island of Sitka was not more than 20 miles, Mr. Blake asserted he had yet to hear of the white man or Indian who had crossed it. The rock is a hard grit, sometimes coarse, often passing into digillitte trending parallel to that of the coast, and extending south to the " Deep sea," a remarkable fresh water lake 12 miles S.W. of Sitka, where syncretic granite occurs. Limestone highly crystalline is found North, and within a few miles of the town. The Mining and Scientific Press says, "Along Chatham Straits, east of Sitka, the rocks are metamorphic, stratified mica schist, standing almost vertically, and showing a parallelism in their trend to the line of the coast and of upheaval. Glaciers are common along the inland waters north and to the back of Sitka Island. Three of these sweep grandly from the mountain gorges and rush to the water's edge, generally terminating in a low crescent- shaped flat, formed by the wash from their terminal moraines. In Icy Straits, north of Sitka Island, the ice from them falls into the sea, and so great is the accumulation as to render navigation dangerous. In latitude 50 deg., along Chatham Straits, every marked depression has its glacier of greater or less extent. These glaciers are to be seen at points as far south as the mouth of the Stickeen river, and the lowest known limit on the coast is about latitude 54 deg. in British Columbia, east of Port Simpson."
Good coal and paying quantities of gold, Mr. Blake says, are yet to be discovered. Copper abounds on the dangerous Copper River, and magnetic iron ore and galena are reported. Fossils of the carboniferous age occur at Capo Beaufort on the Arctic coast, of the Jurassic period on the east coast of the peninsula, tertiary fossils on Kodiak Island, and several other points. The resources and capacity of the country those who know it best assert to be considerable. The fur trade and the fisheries alone would supply remunerative labour to many persons. There arc, it is believed, 700 Americans now in the territory, and 7,000 Russians and half-breeds permanently located there."
In December 1872, following the discovery of gold in British Columbia's Cassiar region, U.S. President Grant ordered that the entire coastal fringe, termed the lisière in the original document, be surveyed. Canada surveyed the boundary at the Stikine River in 1877 so they could set up a Customs post to collect duty on goods headed to the Cassiar gold fields.
In 1887-1888 and again in 1895, William Ogilvie surveyed the region around the Fortymile gold discoveries. In 1889, an American survey party under the direction of J. Henry Turner discovered that the HBC trading post of Rampart House was 30 miles west of the 141st Meridian, well inside Alaskan territory, and the company was forced to retreat up the Porcupine River and build a new post.
The discovery of gold in the Klondike brought the boundary issue into critical focus - when every square foot of land could yield enormous wealth, the precise location of the border must be known. And this is where things got complicated - what exactly was meant by the 72-year-old description of the border through the coastal mountains and around or across the deep fjords?
The head of Lynn Canal, where Captain William Moore had homesteaded, was one of the main gateways to the Yukon, and the North West Mounted Police sent a detachment to secure the location for Canada. This was based on Canada's assertion that that location was more than ten marine leagues from the sea, which was part of the 1825 boundary definition.
A massive influx of prospectors to what became the town of Skagway very quickly made a retreat advisable. There are stories that a group of heavily-armed Americans demanded that the Canadian flag on the police post be taken down or they would shoot it down (Hamilton, 229). Semi-permanent posts were then set up on the desolate summits of Chilkoot and White Passes, complete with a mounted Gatling gun at each post. This was still disputed territory, as many Americans believed that the head of Lake Bennett, another 12 miles north, should be the location of the border. To back up the police in their sovereignty claim, the Canadian government also sent the Yukon Field Force, a 200-man Army unit, to the territory. The soldiers set up camp at Fort Selkirk so that they could be fairly quickly dispatched to deal with problems at either the coastal passes or the 141st Meridian.
The posts set up on the passes by the Mounties were effective in the short term - the provisional boundary was accepted, if grudgingly. In September 1898, serious negotiations began in Quebec City between the United States and Canada, to settle the issue beyond further dispute. Those meetings failed, and Great Britain was finally brought in as part of a six-man tribunal. The American representatives were Elihu Root, Henry Cabot Lodge and Arthur Turner; Sir Louis Jetté and Sir Alan Silverstone represented Canada, and Lord Silverstone was the British representative.
The exact meaning of the wording of the 1825 agreement was what had to be decided upon. The final decision of the tribunal was in the United States' favour; Lord Silverstone had voted with the American representatives.
Russia to the United States
Treaty of Cession
15 Stat. 539
Treaty concerning the Cession of the Russian Possessions in North America by his Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias to the United States of America; Concluded March 30, 1867; Ratified by the United States May 28, 1867; Exchanged June 20, 1867; Proclaimed by the United States June 20, 1867.
OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Whereas, a treaty between the United States of America and his Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias was concluded and signed by their respective plenipotentiaries at the city of Washington, on the thirtieth day of March, last, which treaty, being in the English and French languages, is, word for word, as follows:
The United States of America and his Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, being desirous of strengthening, if possible, the good understanding which exists between them, have, for that purpose, appointed as their Plenipotentiaries: the President of the United States, William H. Seward, Secretary of State; and His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, the Privy Councillor Edward de Stoeckl his Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the United States.
And the said Plenipotentiaries, having exchanged their full powers, which were found to be in due form, have agreed upon and signed the following articles:
His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias agrees to cede to the United States, by this convention, immediately upon the exchange of the ratifications thereof, all the territory and dominion now possessed by his said Majesty on the continent of America and in the adjacent islands, the same being contained within the geographical limits herein set forth, to wit: The eastern limit is the line of demarcation between the Russian and the British possessions in North America, as established by the convention between Russia and Great Britain, of February 28 - 16, 1825, and described in Articles III and IV of said convention, in the following terms:
III. "Commencing from the southernmost point of the island called Prince of Wales Island, which point lies in the parallel of 54 degrees 40 minutes north latitude, and between the 131st and the 133d degree of west longitude (meridian of Greenwich,) the said line shall ascend to the north along the channel called Portland channel, as far as the point of the continent where it strikes the 56th degree of north latitude; from this last-mentioned point, the line of demarcation shall follow the summit of the mountains situated parallel to the coast as far as the point of intersection of the 141st degree of west longitude (of the same meridian;) and finally, from the said point of intersection, the said meridian line of the 141st degree, in its prolongation as far as the Frozen ocean.
IV. "With reference to the line of demarcation laid down in the preceding article, it is understood -
1st. That the island called Prince of Wales Island shall belong wholly to Russia," (now, by this cession, to the United States.)
2nd. That whenever the summit of the mountains which extend in a direction parallel to the coast from the 56th degree of north latitude to the point of intersection of the 141st degree of west longitude shall prove to be at the distance of more than ten marine leagues from the ocean, the limit between the British possessions and the line of coast which is to belong to Russia as above mentioned (that is to say, the limit to the possessions ceded by this convention) shall be formed by a line parallel to the winding of the coast, and which shall never exceed the distance of ten marine leagues therefrom.
The western limit within which the territories and dominion conveyed, are contained, passes through a point in Behring's straits on the parallel of sixty-five degrees thirty minutes north latitude, at its intersection by the meridian which passes midway between the islands of Krusenstern, or Inaglook, and the island of Ratmanoff, or Noonarbook, and proceeds due north, without limitation, into the same Frozen ocean. The same western limit, beginning at the same initial point, proceeds thence in a course nearly southwest through Behring's straits and Behring's sea, so as to pass midway between the northwest point of the island of St. Lawrence and the southeast point of Cape Choukotski, to the meridian of one hundred and seventy-two west longitude; thence, from the intersection of that meridian, in a southwesterly direction, so as to pass midway between the island of Attou and the Copper island of the Kormandorski couplet or group in the North Pacific ocean, to the meridian of one hundred and ninety-three degrees west longitude, so as to include in the territory conveyed the whole of the Aleutian islands east of that meridian.
In the cession of territory and dominion made by the preceding article are included the right of property in all public lots and squares, vacant lands, and all public buildings, fortifications, barracks, and other edifices which are not private individual property. It is, however, understood and agreed, that the churches which have been built in the ceded territory by the Russian government, shall remain the property of such members of the Greek Oriental Church resident in the territory, as may choose to worship therein. Any government archives, papers and documents relative to the territory and dominion aforesaid, which may be now existing there, will be left in the possession of the agent of the United States; but an authenticated copy of such of them as may be required, will be, at all times, given by the United States to the Russian government, or to such Russian officers or subjects as they may apply for.
The inhabitants of the ceded territory, according to their choice, reserving their natural allegiance, may return to Russia within three years; but if they should prefer to remain in the ceded territory, they, with the exception of uncivilized native tribes, shall be admitted to the enjoyment of all the rights, advantages, and immunities of citizens of the United States, and shall be maintained and protected in the free enjoyment of their liberty, property, and religion. The uncivilized tribes will be subject to such laws and regulations as the United States may, from time to time, adopt in regard to aboriginal tribes of that country.
His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias shall appoint, with convenient despatch, an agent or agents for the purpose of formally delivering to a similar agent or agents appointed on behalf of the United States, the territory, dominion, property, dependencies and appurtenances which are ceded as above, and for doing any other act which may be necessary in regard thereto. But the cession, with the right of immediate possession, is nevertheless to be deemed complete and absolute on the exchange of ratifications, without waiting for such formal delivery.
Immediately after the exchange of the ratifications of this convention, any fortifications or military posts which may be in the ceded territory shall be delivered to the agent of the United States, and any Russian troops which may be in the territory shall be withdrawn as soon as may be reasonably and conveniently practicable.
In consideration of the cession aforesaid, the United States agree to pay at the treasury in Washington, within ten months after the exchange of the ratifications of this convention, to the diplomatic representative or other agent of his Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, duly authorized to receive the same, seven million two hundred thousand dollars in gold. The cession of territory and dominion herein made is hereby declared to be free and unencumbered by any reservations, privileges, franchises, grants, or possessions, by any associated companies, whether corporate or incorporate, Russian or any other, or by any parties, except merely private individual property holders; and the cession hereby made, conveys all the rights, franchises, and privileges now belonging to Russia in the said territory or dominion, and appurtenances thereto.
When this convention shall have been duly ratified by the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, on the one part, and on the other by his Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, the ratifications shall be exchanged at Washington within three months from the date hereof, or sooner if possible. In faith whereof, the respective plenipotentiaries have signed this convention, and thereto affixed the seals of their arms. Done at Washington, the thirtieth day of March, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-seven.
And whereas the said Treaty has been duly ratified on both parts, and the respective ratifications of the same were exchanged at Washington on this twentieth day of June, by William H. Seward, Secretary of State of the United States, and the Privy Counsellor Edward de Stoeckl, the Envoy Extraordinary of His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, on the part of their respective governments,
Now, therefore, be it known that I, Andrew Johnson, President of the United States of America, have caused the said Treaty to be made public, to the end that the same and every clause and article thereof may be observed and fulfilled with good faith by the United States and the citizens thereof.
In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand, and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed.
Done at the city of Washington, this twentieth day of June in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-seven, and of the Independence of the United States the ninety-first.
Hawaiian Gazette, August 10, 1897
Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A.
Alaska, our remarkable outlying territory, is almost us large in area as the entire United States east of the Mississippi. It is rich in mineral wealth, and has already yielded many times its cost in the precious and other metals. Every year its value to the United States is increasing, and yet it is entirely isolated from the rest of our territory— Just as Cuba would be, were we to acquire it.—Ex.
Alaska Yukon Pacific Exposition (WA) (Images of America (Arcadia Publishing): The Alaska Yukon Pacific Exposition, held during the summer of 1909, was the first world's fair held in Seattle. Capitalizing on the popularity of the booming gold rush, the exposition was designed to showcase the riches of the Pacific Northwest and highlight trade with the Pacific Rim nations and beyond. Millions of visitors came to Seattle to experience the one-of-a-kind attractions, exhibits, and events held during the AY PE, which became the footprint for the modern University of Washington campus. Many of these visitors stayed to populate the growing metropolis. From the ornate European-style architecture to the fountains and gardens, the amusements of the Pay Streak, and the exotic Oriental exhibits, the AYPE entertained and educated while bringing needed business to Washington State.