The Maritime Heritage Project

Ship Passengers, San Francisco: 1846-1899

World Harbors and International Migration from The Maritime Heritage Project.

The Maritime Heritage Project.

Under Serious Reconstruction.
Due to new WWW and Google formatting guidelines, 18 years worth of coding on more than 2,500 entries is being updated, Also, lists of gold seekers, opportunists and immigrants sailing into San Francisco during the 1800s are going on a new site -- Ship Passengers. This may take awhile. Please stopover from time to time. Thank you.

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Artists in California, 1786-1940
Edan Milton Hughes

Edwin Deakin, California Painter.
Edwin Deakin: California Painter of the PicturesqueEdwin Deakin.
Scott A. Shields

Western Artists.
Lure of the West
Treasures from the Smithsonian American Art Museum

Amy Pastan
Striking paintings and sculptures by artists who traveled west in the decades following the Lewis and Clark explorations, portray the expanding frontier from an array of compelling viewpoints: pristine wilderness, rugged landscapes, the Gold Rush, exotic Hispanic cultures of the Southwest, tribal Indian life, and romanticized views of the West as a place of primal beauty and spiritual values. Artists include Emanuel Leutze, Albert Bierstadt, Thomas Moran, Charles Bird King, George Catlin, Irving Couse, Olin Warner, and others.

California's Frontier NaturalistsCalifornia's Naturalists.
Richard G. Beidleman
This book chronicles stories of enthusiastic, stalwart, and talented naturalists drawn to California's spectacular natural bounty from 1786, when the La Pérouse Expedition arrived at Monterey, to the Death Valley expedition in 1890-91. Beidleman's engaging narrative describes the lives of botanists, zoologists, geologists, paleontologists, astronomers, and ethnologists as they camped under stars and faced blizzards, made discoveries and amassed collections, kept journals, sketched flowers and landscapes, recorded comets and native languages. He weaves together the stories of their lives, demanding fieldwork, contributions to science, and exciting adventures against the backdrop of California and world history.

Women Artists.
Independent Spirits: Women Painters of the American West, 1890-1945Women Painters of the American West.
Patricia Trenton, Virginia Scharff

Berkeley Bohemia Artists and Visionaries of the Early 20th CenturyBohemia Artists and Visionaries.
Ed Herny

Artful Players: Artistic Life in Early San Francisco
Birgitta Hjalmarson
With a handful of wealthy Gold Rush barons as patrons, an active community of artists appeared in nineteenth-century San Francisco almost overnight. A subculture of artistic brilliance and social experimentation was the result. Witness Jules Tavernier, hungry and in debt, accepting a stuffed peacock and two old dueling pistols in payment for a Yosemite landscape; Mark Twain as reluctant art critic, etc.


Artists of the WestArtists of the West.

Artists of the West.

Western ArtWestern Art and Artists.

VIPS in the Port of San Francisco

Eadweard James Muggeridge (Muybridge)

Eadweard (Edward) James Muggeridge was born at Kingston-on-the-Thames, England, in 1830. (Early in life he adopted the Saxon spelling of his name.)

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Eadweard Muybridge, 1890
English Photographer

Muybridge attended school in Kingston, and worked in his family's stationery and papermaking business in London. He came to the U.S. in 1852 as their representative and settled for awhile in San Francisco where he learned photography from daguerreotypist Silas Selleck in the early 1860s, and worked for Carleton E. Watkins, the major West Coast scenic photographer, before striking out on his own.?

He made photographic surveys for the firm of Thomas Houseworth and worked for the U.S. War Department documenting areas of the West Coast. Muybridge first gained recognition in 1867 for a prize-winning series of dramatic Yosemite views. The following year, he was the official photographer with the American military presence in recently-purchased Alaska. He took over 2000 photographs of the American Far West between 1868 and 1873.?

In 1872 Muybridge was enlisted by Leland Stanford to settle a wager regarding the position of a trotting horse's legs. Using the fastest shutter available, Muybridge was able to provide only the faintest image. He was more successful five years later when, employing a battery of cameras with mechanically tripped shutters, he showed clearly the stages of the horse's movement: at top speed, a trotting horse had all four hooves off the ground simultaneously, and in a different configuration from that of a galloping horse. (This experiment is credited with being the precursor to motion pictures.)

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Jockey on a Galloping Horse, Plate 62
Eadweard Muybridge


Between these two studies, Muybridge traveled to the Isthmus of Panama. At that time Panama was part of Colombia, and Colombian President Juan Berrios was attempting to rejuvenate the coffee plantations by granting investment incentives to new and established growers.

Muybridge braved the tropical climate and rainforest of much of Central America, photographing points of interest on the route of the Panama Railroad and the Pacific Mail Steamship Company's line. His efforts were financed by the Pacific Mail line, which hoped that publication of the photographs in North America would attract new investors to the region.

Edward Muybridge photo from Chagres.

He had left the U.S. after killing his wife's lover and, although he was acquitted, he didn't return until 1877.

Muybridge concentrated his efforts on studies of the motion of animals and human models.

His work in stop-action series photography soon led to his invention of the "zoopraxiscope," a primitive motion-picture machine which recreated movement by displaying individual photographs in rapid succession. Thomas Eakins, who painted motion subjects, helped arrange for Muybridge to work at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Muybridge's major accomplishments date from his three year stay there, during which he was able to improve his techniques.

Note: On May 20, 2004, Charl Lucassen from the Netherlands, sent the following information from?Chronological Projections?which quotes Talcott Williams, Animal Locomotion in the Muybridge Photographs, The Century; a popular quarterly, Volume 34, Issue 3, July 1887, pp. 356-368.

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Cockatoo in Flight
Eadweard Muybridge

When the work, begun four years ago, was completed, $30,000 had been expended, and 100,000 plates exposed; and the final results, as reproduced by a photo-gelatine process, extend, in the completed work, through 781 folio sheets, presenting over 20,000 positions assumed by men, women, and children, draped and nude, and by birds and animals in motion.

Earlier photographs are published as?The Horse in Motion?series (1877-1879) and in The?Attitudes of Animals in Motion?(1881) In 1887 his most important work,?Animal Locomotion, was published in 11 volumes. It contained 19,157 photographs taken between 1884 and 1886.?

He returned to England in 1894 and did little photography in his last years. His book?The Human Figure in Motion?was published in 1901.?

He died three years later at his native Kingston-on-the-Thames.

The Inventor and the Tycoon: The Murderer Eadweard Muybridge, the Entrepreneur Leland Stanford, and the Birth of Moving Pictures
Edward Ball

Eadweard Muybridge.
The Science of Animal Locomotion (Zoopraxography)
An Electro-Photographic Investigation of Consecutive Phases of Animal Movements
Eadweard Muybridge.
Eadweard Muybridge
English photographer Eadweard Muybridge (1830-1904) was a pioneer in visual studies of human and animal locomotion. In 1872, he famously helped settle a bet for former California governor Leland Stanford by providing photographic proof that when galloping, a horse momentarily lifts all of its legs off of the ground. '

The Human Figure in MotionEadweard Muybridge.
Eadweard Muybridge.Eadweard Muybridge
The 4,789 photographs in this definitive selection show the human figure ? models almost all undraped ? engaged in over 160 different types of action: running, climbing stairs, tumbling, dressing, undressing, hopping on one foot, dancing, etc. Children walking, crawling, and many dozens of other activities.