Shipwrecks in Pacific Waters: 1800s
° Passenger Ship Arrivals
SS San Francisco
August 16, 1850, Daily Alta California, California
THE NEW STEAMER SAN FRANCISCO.-- This steamer, which is now building in New York, is designed to run between this city (San Francisco) and Panama, in connection with the Sarah Sands,Northerner and New Orleans. Her dimensions are as follows: Length of keel 243 feet; length on deck 255 feet; beam 40 feet; depth 24 feet. She measures 2000 tons, and is furnished with two powerful engines. Altogether she is said to be superior to any thing that has yet made its appearance on the Pacific.
Steamers and Clippers for California
The following notices of vessels building, freighting or about leaving New York for San Francisco, are from our New York correspondent's letter: The handsomest, most graceful and one of the largest steamers ever launched is now receiving her machinery at the Morgan Works, in this city. She is called the San Francisco, built for the Pacific Mail Steamship Company, and to be commanded by Commodore Watkins. A more exquisitely modeled ship never floated.
July 17, 1853, Daily Alta California, San Francisco
THE STEAMSHIP SAN FRANCISCO, for the Pacific Mail Co.'s line between Panama and San Francisco, was launched at New York on the 9th of June, from the yard of Mr. Wm. H. Webb. She registers about 2200 tons, is 280 feet long, 40 feet broad and 16 feet deep. She has a very shore model, and for the workmanship it is only necessary to say she was built by Mr. Webb. She will be propelled by two oscillating engines, from the Morgan Works. They are to be of great power, and will be placed fore and aft, thus leaving a clear run on each side of the main deck from stem to stern. She is to be an improvement on the John L. Stephens, and will be fitted up with all the modern appliances to render her second to no steamer afloat.
August 12, 1853, Daily Alta California, San Francisco
The New Steamship for San Francisco
A New York paper of July 5th, gives the following account of this new steamship:
This beautiful addition to the steam fleet of the Pacific Mail Steamship Company, lately launched from the yard of Mr. Wm. H. Webb, foot of Sixth street, has been built in the most substantial manner and with special attention to the trade she is intended for. Her model is very sharp, having concave lines at each end, and it is fully expected she will excel in speed the celebrated Golden Gate, (another of Mr. Webb’s construction) which has run from San Francisco to Panama, stopping at Monterey, San Diego and Acapulco, in eleven days and four hours, a distance of 3600 miles - beating all competitors from two to three days. Her length on deck is 285 feet; breadth of beam, 41 feet; and she is 24 feet deep. She has three decks. With a light joiner’s deck 8 feet above the 24 feet deck, making a covering for cabins, state rooms, and the officer’s rooms on the latter deck, besides a clear space above, and forming a splendid promenade fore and aft. She will be rigged with two masts.
The hull is remarkable for its immense strength. The bottom is solid, and there are double diagonal braces as an additional security for the frame, running from the floor heads to the upper deck, all bolted to the frame and riveted together at each crossing, and still further secured by a large iron plate which runs fore and aft over the upper ends of the diagonal braces, to which it is riveted, and also bolted to the frame. In addition to this, another method of strengthening has been introduced into this vessel never before adopted. This consists in having two bulkheads, running fore and aft, one on each side of the engine and boilers, and secured to the bottom and the middle deck beams, and diagonally braced with iron the whole length, rendering it an impossibility for anything much less a complete wreck to start a timber.
The interior is to be arranged with state rooms above and with single open berths, similar to the Hudson river boats, and with open steerage berths below. Having a great number of very large sideports and skylights, affording an unusual amount of light and ventilation, this portion of the arrangements will not be subject to the inconvenience resulting from the want of those two necessities for comfort that render traveling in warm latitudes on board some steamships quite a serious consideration.
The machinery is now being completed at the Morgan Works. It will consist of two oscillating engines, with two boilers. The engine will oscillate with a new adjustable cut-off arrangement. The cylinders are 65 inches in diameter, with 8 feet stroke and placed fore and aft in the ship. The wheels, which are fitted with feathering buckets, are 28 feet in diameter, with a face of 8 feet; wheel shafts 18 inches in diameter; one pair of cranks, and one crank pin, and four piston rods. The air pumps will be worked with an auxiliary engine. The dimensions of the boilers are 13 feet eight inches in diameter and 34 feet long. The engine frames are made of boiler iron. The fire rooms are placed fore and aft, with air-tight arrangements. The danger from fire is well provided against, by having two independent fire pumps, with boilers attached.
The San Francisco, when completed, will be the finest steamship on the Pacific. Nothing will be spared to render her worthy of that position. Her beautiful construction must excite much attention there, and she will undoubtedly command a large share of the traveling patronage between San Francisco and Panama. She registers about 2200 tons.
Carl Cutler, in Queens of the Western Ocean, writes: "On Christmas Day 1853, the San Francisco was disabled, and on January 6th, 1854, she foundered with a loss of more than 200 lives. Upwards of 500 were saved, principally by the splendid work of the ships Three Bells, of Glasgow, and (John A.) Zerega's Antarctic, George E. Stouffer Master (from 1853-1858), who saved 197 from SS San Francisco, with the bark Kilby rescuing 108 or thereabouts."
January 6, 1854, New York Daily Times, New York, New York, U.S.A.
Disaster to the New Steamship San Francisco.
A telegraphic dispatch from Liverpool, N. S., dated yesterday, says the Maria Freeman arrived there reports -- that on the 26th of December, in Lat. 38 deg. 20', long. 69 deg., fell in with the new American Steamship San Francisco, from New York, for San Francisco, with her decks swept, boats gone, and completely disabled. Could not render any assistance, as she drifted out of sight during the gale.
January 9, 1854, New York Daily Times, New York, New York
The San Francisco
Additional Particulars of the Loss of this Steamer
January 14, 1854, New York Daily Times, New York, New York
Another dispatch received this morning from Liverpool, N. S., furnishes the following additional particulars concerning the San Francisco. The Captain of the Maria Freeman states that when he saw the San Francisco her engines were not working, her smoke-pipe was gone, and her decks were swept of everything. The Captain of the steamer requested him to stay by him, and he did so, but a gale sprung up during the night and drove her out of sight. Saw at least one hundred and fifty persons on board.
Capt Freeman, of the brig Maria, at Liverpool, N. S., who fell in with the steamer San Francisco on the 26th of December, as previously reported, adds to his report that during the following night the wind increased to a hurricane from the northwest, during which the Maria laid to, but lost sight of the steamer and he thinks she must have foundered during the gale, as he could not find her afterwards.
The Loss of the San Francisco.
In our columns, this morning, we furnish the details of a disaster more terrible than any of which it has ever fallen to our lot to record. The United States steamship San Francisco, about which so many fears have been abroad for ten days past, stimulated by telegraphic dispatches, and under untelegraphic rumors, has gone to the base of the ocean, and of seven hundred living beings that she carried, three hundred will see the light of the sun no more. Tragedies have been recently accumulating. What with conflagrations on land, and disasters at sea, we have "supped full of horrors." If anything could add to the tragedy of the San Francisco, it would be the outbreak of cholera, consequent upon the dissipation indulged in by the black and white waiters, and by a few of the troops, who deemed drunkenness and gluttony the best preparation for a "sea change." From fifty to sixty deaths -- statistics are somewhat dubious at present -- are chargeable to such excesses.
The human freight of the San Francisco is scattered. Three hundred and more are in the waves; one hundred and fifty (round numbers) are gone to Liverpool in the ship that saved them; about the same number have arrived, mostly without garments, in this port; and nearly an equal number rescued by another vessel have still to be heard from. A good word must be said for the captain of the British ship now in this port, who kept about the wreck six days, rescuing as many as were left, and suffering no soul to sink. He did his duty and no more, but the blessings of those he saved, and of their friends at home, will not forsake him. For the fullest particulars that could be obtained to the time of our going to press, we direct our readers to the details in another column.
During the ensuing days, the Kilby, the Three Bells, and the Antarctic took on the passengers and crew of the SS San Francisco.
"Captain Watkins boarded the Kilby (and) on behalf of the United States Government, contracted to pay the owners $15,000 to take as many of the passengers off the steamer on board his vessel as was possible. He further agreed to give the Captain $200 a day, on behalf of the Pacific Mail Steamship Company, to lay alongside in case he should be obliged to do so for any great length of time. The Captain was also to receive $1,000 for his noble conduct in launching his boats when his crew had refused the duty, and the sea threatened to swallow him up with his frail craft, as well as five percent primage on the amount contracted to be paid by the Government. At 3 o'clock P. M. the hawser was run to the bow of the Kilby, and soon after the disembarkation of the passengers commenced. Great fears were entertained by many that the boats would be swamped, owing to the rush to get into them. Several of the officers had provided themselves with weapons to keep back the crowd, and Colonel Gates addressed the troops, declaring that he would be the last to desert the ship, and that he hoped the officers and soldiers on board would follow his example, and wait with patience until their names were called. The first boat soon after came alongside. I was on deck at the time, and shall never forget the scene of confusion which ensued. The first boat which left carried Col. Gates and his family. After this the officers followed according to grade, and the boats continued plying to and fro until dark, at which time about one hundred passengers had been transferred to the Kilby. The last boat which crossed was swamped alongside of her, and the captain of the Kilby stated that he would prefer discontinuing the further disembarkation of passengers until the morning, as the sea beginning to rise, and a violent northwester was again springing up."
January 14, 1854, New York Daily Times, New York, New York
TOTAL LOSS OF THE SAN FRANCISCO
LOSS OF OVER 300 LIVES
Over One Hundred Souls Swept Overboard by a Single Wave
One Hundred Rescued by Another Vessel, and Yet Unheard Of
The British ship Three Bells, of Glasgow, Capt. Creighton, from Glasgow to this port, arrived yesterday at 4 P. M., with merchandise and passengers, after a passage of 45 days. She brought over 150 passengers from the steamship San Francisco, and confirmed the worst fears that had been entertained of the fate of the vessel.
The San Francisco, Commodore Watkins, left this port on the 21st of December, bound to San Francisco, via the Straits of Magellan, touching at Rio Janeiro, Valparaiso, and Acapulco. On board, were Companies A, B, D, G, H, I, K, and L, of the Third Regiment of the United States Artillery, amounting, with the non-commissioned staff and band of the regiment, to over 500 men.
The following is a list of the officers in command:
Colonel Wm. Gates, commanding regiment
Major, and Brevet Lieutenant Colonel J. M. Washington
Major Charles S. Merchant
Surgeon R. S. Satterlee
First Lieut. S. L. Fremont, Regimental Quartermaster and Acting Adjutant
First Lieut. L. Loeser, Acting Assistant Commissary
Capt. And Brevet Lieut. Col. M. Burke, Commanding Company I.
Capt. And Brevet Major George Taylor, Commanding Company A.
Captain and Brevet Major F. O. Wyse, commanding Company D.
Capt. H. B. Judd, commanding detachments of recruits to constitute Companies B and L.
First Lieut. and Brevet Capt. H. B. Field, commanding Company K.
First Lieut. W. A. Winder, commanding Company G.
First Lieut. C. S. Winder, commanding Company H.
First Lieut. R. H. Smith
Second Lieut. J. Van Vorst
Brevet Second Lieut. J. O. Chandler
The officers' families consisted of: Mrs. Gates and three children; Mrs. Carter; Mrs. Merchant and two children; Miss Valeria Merchant; Mrs. Chase and son; Mrs. Fremont and three children; Mrs. Loeser; Miss Eaton; Mrs. Taylor; Mrs. Wyse and child; Mrs. Judd.
Mr. Geo. Aspinwall, Capt. J. W. T. Gardiner, (of the First Dragoons, on his way to join his Regiment in California,) James L. Graham, Jr., and Lieut. F. K. Murray, U. S. Navy, en route for the Squadron at Rio, were also on board. There were also some passengers whose names we have not learned.
The list of the ship's officers is as follows:
J. T. Watkins, Commander
Edward Mellus, 1st officer Geo. Gratton, 2d do. (duty officer)
Chs. F. Sarton, 3d do. John mason, 4th do.
J. W. Marshall, Chief Engn'r.
A. Auchinlick, 1st Asst. do.
J. Farnsworth, 2d do.
D. Dunham, 2d Asst. Eng'r.
James Crosby, 2d do.
B. Lanaghan, 3d do.
C. Hoffman, 3d do.
Edward Osner, Quartermaster
John Gallagher, do.
Leonard Hooker, do. _____ Kelley, do.
The above, with sixteen seamen, and the cabin and steerage waiters, made up a total of 700 souls who sailed in the San Francisco from this port. She was entirely a new ship, constructed with a view to her occasional employment in the transportation of troops. She had three months' provisions for the crew, and twelve months' provisions for the troops.
ON BOARD SHIP "ANTARCTIC," BOUND FOR LIVERPOOL.
Capt. J. T. Watkins
Charles F. Barton, 3d officer
John Mason, 4th officer
T. L. Schell, Purser
Levi Heath, steerage steward, white
Walter Heath, waiter
Both of the above were from Haverhill, Mass., but not near relatives
Charles Sanford, colored, insane, jumped overboard while on board the Three Bells
William Wilson, colored, waiter
L. Testador, colored, waiter
Johnson, colored, head waiter
Arthur Henry, fireman
Brooks, colored, waiter
Walter Watkins, fireman
Brooks, colored waiter }
The barber, colored, washed overboard
F. Duckett, white, steer. waiter, }
A seaman named Alexander
DISSIPATION ON BOARD -- OUTBREAK OF CHOLERA.
One of the most terrible features of this shocking disaster was the outbreak of cholera, occasioned by the dissipation of a portion of the troops, and of the white and colored waiters. While the ship was at the mercy of the waves, many of these individuals, as is too often the case at such seasons determined since they had given up the idea of escaping, to enjoy themselves before the ship went down. In the confusion that prevailed, the storeroom was left unfastened, and the contents were too tempting to be withstood. They accordingly indulged their appetites without restraint. They partook of preserves, cakes, sweetmeats, dainties of all kinds ad libitum, and then repaired to the spirits room, where they washed down their repasts with copious and undiluted draughts. The effects of this conduct unexpectedly manifested themselves in violent attacks of cramp and diarrhea. Some of the debauchees died in less than ten hours from the time of seizure, others laid a day or two, while some recovered altogether. We are informed by an officer that nearly sixty individuals perished in this manner, some dying onboard the Three Bells, while on her way to this port; others were put onboard the Antarctic, so much reduced by diarrhea as to give but little prospect of recovery.
Only one seaman was lost. He was knocked from the spanker-boom, and was drowned. Another of the crew had his leg broken. He was taken off in the Kilby.
In nautical phraseology, the ship was "too deep." But the gale by which she was overtaken was too tremendous to leave any question of her qualities open to criticism. We learn that she was nearly opposite Cape Hatteras when she was struck by the wind and driven to the northwest. She was soon rendered unmanageable, and drifted before the gale. When she was met by the Three Bells, she was some hundred leagues to the northward, out of her course.
The number of troops lost, according to Lieut. Winder's computation, is nearly or quite 160. Four officers were swept off by the wave that cleared the deck of over 100 souls. The troops on board the Three Bells have lost nearly every article of clothing. In fact nothing was saved from the San Francisco -- neither provisions nor baggage. When over 250 men had been lost everybody thought himself lucky who escaped with his life. Many of the soldiers brought to this port by the Three Bells are prevented from going on shore for want of apparel.
Copy of the order convening the Court:
WAR DEPARTMENT, ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE
Washington, Jan. 28, 1854
Special Order, No. 17. -- The following order from the war Department is published for the information of all concerned:
WAR DEPARTMENT, Jan. 27, 1854. By direction of the President of the United States, a Court of Inquiry will convene in the City of New York, on Monday, the 6th of February, 1854, or as soon thereafter as practicable, to examine into all the circumstances attending the embarkation, in December last, of the troops under the command of Col. William Gates, Third Artillery, on board the steamer San Francisco destined for California; the cause of the failure of the expedition, and the disorganization of the command at sea; and all facts and circumstances which may concern the conduct of the commander, and of the officers and men of the command.
The Court will be composed of Major-General Winfield Scott, Commanding the Army; Brevet Brigadier-General Henry Stanton, Assistant Quartermaster General; Brevet-Colonel E. V. Sumner, Lieut. Colonel First Dragoons; and Brevet-Major John F. Lee, Judge Advocate of the Army, as recorder.
The Court will make a full report of the facts in this case, with their opinion.
(signed) JEFFERSON DAVIS,
Secretary of War,
by order, S. Cooper, Adjutant General.
Tuesday, February 7, 1854, New York Daily Times, New York
THE SAN FRANCISCO DISASTER
Court-Marshal at Gen. Scott's Headquarters
Investigation of Circumstances Attending the Loss of the San Francisco
Examination into the Conduct of Col. Gates and Other Army officers
The Court of Inquiry, convened by order of the President of the United States, to investigate the circumstances attending the loss of the U. S. transport steamer San Francisco, and such other matters as may relate to the embarkation of the troops and the conduct of the officers and men of the command, commenced its sessions yesterday morning at the headquarters of General Scott, the Commander-in-Chief, at No. 114 West Eleventh street.
The Court consists of the following members: Major Gen. Winfield Scott, Commander-in-Chief; Gen. Stanton, Q. M. Dept.; Col. Sumner, 1st Dragoons; Major John F. Lee, Judge Advocate.
The Court having previously in secret session, now opened its doors, and upon entering the room with a brother reporter, we were informed by General Scott, with the concurrence of the Court that if there were any reporters in the room, he desired to say that they neither invited or declined their presence, but wished it to be understood that they would be admitted just as any other citizens who might desire to hear the public proceedings of the Court. The General very kindly added that he desired us to have all the facilities which the room afforded for writing. A table was furnished us accordingly, for which as well as for the general courtesy that has been extended to us by the Judge Advocate and other members of the Court of Inquiry, we take this opportunity for returning our most sincere thanks.
General Scott then observed to the Court that it would be improper to proceed with the taking of testimony until the arrival of the officers into whose conduct they were particularly directed to inquire, (referring to Col. Gates). This officer was accordingly notified that the Court was in session.
Maritime Section, February 10, 1854,Daily Alta California, San Francisco
Spoken Per San Francisco - December 28th, lat 57 8 S, lon 76 W, ship Ringleader, Matthews, 67 days from Boston for this port. December 29th, passed ship Northern Light, Hatch, hence for Boston, several vessels in company. December 30th, boarded by Capt. Palmer, of whaleship Navigator, of Nantucket, 53 months out, 800 bbls sperm; all well; to cruise for a short time, and then home.
The steam-tug Resolute, Capt. Griffin, came up from the wreck of the San Francisco yesterday for assistance, and in half an hour obtained 75 men, which he put on board the brig E.D. Wolf, which was taken in tow for the wreck, to save all that could be saved. They have cut a hole in the deck, and are now discharging as fast as possible. The steam-tug Abby Holmes, Capt. Welch, came up from the wreck at 5 PM, with a portion of the cargo, boats, etc. The ship laid nearly on her beam ends when the Abby Holmes left. The A. H. will take another vessel down to assist in saving all the cargo they can. The Resolute came up last evening with the brig E.D. Wolf in tow, having cargo from the wreck. The ship is full of water.
Capt. Watkins submitted the following letter which was subsequently published in the Times:
February 10, 1854, New York Daily Times, New York, New York
The Wreck of the San Francisco.
LETTER FROM CAPTAIN WATKINS.
Ship "Antarctic," Liverpool, Jan., 1854.
Nathaniel Hawthorne, Esq., U. S. Consul at Liverpool:
SIR: I have the painful duty to report to you the loss of the U. S. Mail Steamer San Francisco, under my command.
The San Francisco was chartered by the U. S. Government as a troop ship, and sailed from New-York for San Francisco, California, December 22, 1853, having on board eight Companies of the Third Regiment U. S. Artillery. The following is a list of the officers: Col. Wm. Gates, (and family,) commanding regiment; Major and Brevet Lieut. Col. Washington; Major Charles S. Merchant, (and family,) surgeon; G. S. Satterlee, assistant surgeon; H. E. Wirtz, third lieutenant, S. L. Fremont, regimental quartermaster, and family; First Lieut. Loeser, acting assistant Commissary, and family; Capt. And Brevet Col. M. Burke; Captain and Brevet Major George Taylor, and family; Captain and Brevet Major J. O. Wyse, and family; Capt. F. B. Field; Lieut. W. A. Winder; Lieut. C. S. Winder; Lieut. B. H. Smith; Lieut. J. Van Vost; Lieut. J. S. Chandler;, and W. G. Rankin. Also, Capt. Gardner, of the First Dragoons; Lieutenant Murray, of the U. S. Navy; and about 70 camp women and children. The following is a list of the other cabin passengers: Sr. Jacinto Derwanz, (Brazilian Consul,) lady and servant; Capt. Battie, (Brazilian Army,) and lady; Mr. Geo. W. Aspinwall, Mr. J. Lorimer, Jr., Rev. Mr. Cooper and family; Messrs. Tenney, Gates, Southwick, and one gentleman, name unknown; numbering in all, ship's company inclusive, about 750 souls.
On the night of the 23d December, judging myself on the southern edge of the Gulf stream, we experienced a most terrific gale from northwest, which continued to increase with great violence until it blew a perfect hurricane, with a very high, irregular sea. At 3:30 A. M., on the 24th, the chief engineer reported to me that the engines had broken down. Up to this time the ship behaved very handsomely, but she immediately fell off in the trough of the sea, and labored very heavily. At 5 A., M., lost our foremast, and all the canvas off the ship, carrying away, at the same time, four of our life-boats, with the wreck of the spars.
I had now great fears that the ship could not safely out live the gale. At 7 A. M., just as the chief engineer was making an effort to start the engines under high pressure, a terrific sea boarded us, carrying with it the whole of the upper saloon and everything abaft the paddle-boxes, and about 150 souls; both smoke stacks, the remainder of our boats, staving about 50 feet of the spar deck over the main saloon, and leaving the ship almost a perfect wreck -- leaking very much.
The following is a list of the officers and others, cabin passengers, who were washed overboard: Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel J. M. Washington, Brevet Major George Taylor and lady; Captain H. B. Field, Lieutenant R. H. Smith, Mr. Gates, son of Col. Gates, Mr. Tenney and another gentleman, name unknown, together with 130 soldiers and four of the crew.
The remainder of the passengers were as soon as possible formed into gangs to assist in bailing and pumping, and in twelve hours succeeded in gaining on the water several inches. On the morning of the 25th, the weather became more moderate, and the engineers succeeded in starting the steam pump, which soon released the passengers from bailing. The crew, with a number of carpenters from the command, were employed in clearing away the wreck, stopping leaks as well as possible in the upper works and lightening the ship.
From the 25th to the 27th inclusive, experienced moderate gales with high, confused sea. On the 28th fell in with and boarded the American bark Kilby, for New Orleans. This vessel was chartered by Col. Gate to take on board all of the troops, and convey them to the nearest port in the United States; and at 7 o'clock P. M. succeeded in getting about 100 souls on board of her, when I received word from the captain that he could receive no more on board that evening.
At 10 P. M. it commenced blowing fresh from the southward and eastward, with rain, and at midnight it blew a heavy gale, with a very high sea. At 4 A. M. on the 29th the gale was most terrific. Passengers were again mustered into gangs, to pump and bail. During the night lost sight of the Kilby, and saw nothing more of her. At noon the gale moderated, with the wind from the N. W.
On the 30th, more moderate. All hands employed in lightening the ship and stopping the leaks. During the last gale the ship had labored and strained so much I deemed it impossible for her to outlive another, and as I had no motive power on board by which I could work her to the southward, out of the Gulf Stream into fine weather -- the engineer having decided that it was impossible to work the engines again, and the passengers and crew were fast dying off with fatigue and exposure -- I determined to abandon the ship the first opportunity. On the 31st, wind blowing fresh from the W. S. W., with a high sea, fell in with and spoke the British ship Three Bell, of Glasgow, bound for New-York. Requested the Captain to lay by us until it moderated and take us off, which he promptly consented to do, but the weather continued too boisterous for him to send his boat alongside up to the 2d inst. The ship was then well to windward of us, lying to. At 9 A. M. on the 2d she made signals of distress to a strange sail, which was answered, and both ships ran down to us. At 1 P. M. spoke the strange sail, which proved to be the Antarctic, Captain G. C. Stouffer, of New-York, bound for Liverpool. Begged him to take us off, which he readily consented to do, and both ships immediately lowered away their boats and sent them alongside, when we commenced transferring the troops to both ships.
On the morning of the 5th, succeeded in getting all hands out of the ship without accident. Up to this time we had lost fifty-nine, who died from fatigue and exposure.
The following is a list of officers on board the Three Bells: Brevet Major F. O. Wyse, Lieutenant W. A. Winder, and about 200 troops, including camp women and children. Of the ship's company -- Edward Welles, First officer; Dr. W. B. Buel, surgeon; John W. Marshall, chief engineer; George Gretton, second engineer; Wm. Wickman, storekeeper, and all the assistant engineers, firemen, and coal-passers, and all the bulk of the ship's crew, with a few exceptions, who are on board of this ship.
On board the Antarctic are Lieut. Charles C. Winder and servant; Lieut. J. G. Chandler, and 192 troops, women and children, and with me, my purser, Theo. L. Schell, Charles F. Barton, third officer; John Mason, fourth officer; Washington Duckett, carpenter, and one servant.
The constant kind attention which we have all received from Captain Stouffer, of the Antarctic, and his officers -- his deep solicitude and his judicious care of our men, women and children, since we came on board of his ship -- is above all praise, and merits our most sincere and lasting feelings of gratitude.
Very respectfully, (signed) Jas. T. Watkins
Walt Whitman thus described the sinking with special reference to the part played by the Scottish skipper of the Three Bells, who, in seven long, storm-wracked days and nights, took off more than 200 of the survivors:
I understand the large hearts of heroes,
The courage of present times and all times,
How the skipper saw the crowded and rudderless wreck of the steamship, and Death chasing it up and down the storm,
How he knuckled tight and gave not an inch, and was faithful of days and faithful of nights,
And he chalked in large letters on a board,
BE OF GOOD CHEER, WE WILL NOT DESERT YOU;
How he follow'd with them and tack'd with them three day sand would not give it up, How he saved the drifting company at last,
How the lank loose-gown'd women looked when boated from the side of their prepared graves
How the silent old-faced infants and the lifted sick, and the sharp-lipped unshaven men:
All this I swallow, it tastes good, I like it well, it becomes mine,
I am the man, I suffered, I was there.
I am, very respectfully,
Your ob't servant,
JAMES C. LUCE
Great Shipwrecks of the Pacific Coast
Author Robert Belyk examines ten significant maritime disasters that occurred during one of the most turbulent eras in the history of travel. Real-life drama endured by those caught in the terrifying midst of disaster at sea and the causes behind the tragedies. Well researched, the shipwrecks accounted for here include:
- 1854: the Yankee Blade runs aground. Twenty-eight passengers lose their lives.
- In 1865, only 19 of the 204 passengers and crew on board survived the wreck of the Brother Jonathan, whose owners had been more concerned with maximum profitability than with the safety of their passengers.
- 1875: The old side-wheeler Pacific rams another passenger ship off the coast of Cape Flattery, Washington. Two hundred and seventy-seven people perish when her rotting hull gives way.
- 1906: The Valencia strikes a reef off the Washington coastline. Before dozens of dazed onlookers on the shore, the ship goes down taking 117 passengers and crew with her.
- 1907: The Columbia disappeared under the ocean surface in just eight minutes after ramming another passenger ship. Her poorly maintained iron hull simply gave out, leading to the deaths of 87 passengers.
Beyond the Golden Gate: A Maritime History of California
Timothy G. Lynch
Maritime historian Timothy Lynch looks at the history of the Golden State through the prism of the maritime world: how the region developed and how indigenous people interacted with the marine ecosystem. And how they and others - Spanish, English, Russian, American - interpreted and constructed the oceans, lakes and river networks of the region.
Waterways served as highways, protective barriers, invasion routes, cultural inspiration, zones of recreation, sources of sustenance: much as they do today. He presents how the Gold Rush transformed the region, wreaking havoc on the marine environment, and how the scale and scope of maritime operations waxed and waned in the decades after that event. In all, the delicate balance between protection and utilization is paramount.
Written as part of a project with the National Park Service and the Organization of American Historians. Benefitting from hundreds of primary sources, dozens of captivating images and reflective of the latest trends in the field.